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Le concept de "Nature" est encore largement utilisé pour criminaliser les orientations sexuelles, le genre ou les façons d'être des personnes. Au Liban par exemple, l'article 534 du code pénal condamne des "actes sexuels contre nature", l'article 377 en Inde parle de "relation charnelle contre l'ordre de la nature" alors que le Kenya pénalise le "savoir charnel contre l'ordre de la nature".

L'opposition "Nature" et “Culture” (ou “Societé”) est l'un des fondements du système de valeur moderne occidental. Si "contre nature" prend son origine dans le code français Napoléonien, il n'a jamais fait l'objet de traduction culturelle lors de son importation dans les anciennes colonies anglaises et françaises. Au Liban, il n'existe aucune définition légale du terme "contre nature" ou de ce que le mot nature peut signifier au yeux de la loi. Il n'est alors pas surpprenant que les politiciens, juges ou figures religieuses s'emparent de ce concept arbitraire pour désigner ce qui relèverait du "naturel" et du "non-naturel", donnant à la Nature une source indéniable d'autorité.

Néanmoins, de récents procès au Liban (en 2009 et 2014), défendus par l'organisation Legal Agenda, ont démontré que les juges ont la possibilité d'interpréter le concept de nature, réfutant l'accusation pour sodomie et discutant publiquement la définition de la Nature. Sur la base de ces précédents, Council initie, en collaboration avec Legal Agenda et Ashkal Alwan, le projet "The Manufacturing of Rights", une enquête pluridisciplinaire qui déplie une certains nombre d'arguments (historique, artistique, philosophique, scientifique) pour remettre en cause le concept de Nature et son utilisation lorsqu'il s'agit de réguler les libertés individuelles et les normes de la société.

Groupe de recherche

  • Marwa Arsanios
  • Lawrence Abu Hamdan
  • Youmna Makhlouf
  • Maya Mikdashi
  • Carlos Motta
  • Karim Nammour
  • David Kim

moved to downtown Beirut in 2007, when she founded the 98weeks Research Project with her cousin, the writer and curator Mirene Arsanios. In 2009, they opened the 98weeks Project Space in Mar Mikhael, a district that was quickly absorbing an onslaught of new studios, cafés, design boutiques, bars and restaurants. Aware that they were inevitably contributing to the area’s gentrification, the Arsanioses organized a workshop in 2010, which took the history of Mar Mikhael as its subject. They dug into the many layers that make up the neighbourhood’s curious urban density, including the refugee camps – first Armenian, then Palestinian – that were repeatedly destroyed by illness, fire and war.

explore les dispositifs juridiques de production des preuves orales. Son travail a été soumis comme témoignage au Tribunal de l’asile du Royaume-Uni, où l’artiste lui-même a été appelé comme témoin expert. Il fait partie de l’équipe de Forensic Architecture au Goldsmiths College de Londres, où il est doctorant et conférencier.

has worked extensively to protect the rights of transgender and transsexual individuals in Lebanon. As a legal researcher, she gave visibility and public debate to the 2014 ruling of a transwomen judged under Article 534 of Lebanon’s penal code, condemning an “act against Nature.” She is a practicing lawyer and a member of Legal Agenda’s board.

Maya Mikdashi is a legal anthropologist and is currently a Mellon Postdoc at Rutgers University. Her upcoming book length manuscript entitled "Sex and Sectarianism: Secularism, Secularity and War in Contemporary Lebanon," is both an archival and ethnographic study of the regulation of sexual and religious difference within secular political systems. Maya works at the intersection of legal anthropology, feminism, queer theory, and theories of sovereignty, secularism and religion. She has worked on a number of documentary film projects, and continues to edit and write for Jadaliyya, an ezine that she co-founded and that is centered on critical approaches to studying the transnational Middle East.

draws upon political history in his work in an attempt to create counter narratives that recognize suppressed histories, communities, and identities. His films Nefandus Trilogy (2013) or Deseos / رغبات from 2015 address the construction, categorization and repression of homoeroticism throughout the conquest and colonial period in the Americas. His recent database documentary Gender Talents (2015) presents video portraits of trans and intersex activists who thoughtfully perform gender as a personal, social, and political opportunity, rather than as a social condemnation

is a member of social justice non-governmental organization Legal Agenda. As a legal researcher and litigator, he has worked on several cases and rulings related to social groups marginalized by Lebanese society, including: workers’ rights, syndicates, housing rights (particularly regarding Syrian refugees), Palestinian refugees’ right to access professional orders, drug users’ right to undergo treatment instead of prosecution and LGBTIQ-related rights in Lebanon. In Legal Agenda’s publication, he has published several articles on socio-legal issues including cases related to Article 534 of Lebanon’s Penal Code, used to prosecute homosexuals or what is referred to in the law as “[acts] against the order of nature.”

is the curator of a new, university-wide initiative in art and human rights, led by Yale Law School, set to commence in Fall 2015. Currently a J.D. candidate at Yale Law School, he also works as a graduate curatorial researcher at Yale University Art Gallery. He holds an M.A. in English (2010) from Harvard University and a B.A. in American Studies (2006) from Columbia University. Prior to law school, he worked as a management consultant at McKinsey & Company, where he became interested in the aesthetic possibilities of finance.

— ENQUÊTE : Le procès contra naturam
— ÉVÉNEMENT : The Manufacturing of Rights
— PLATFORME : Notes for a future online platform

Image :
Ahmad el-Abed, a tailor. 1948-53.
Tirée d'une série d'images d'Akram Zaatari, intitulée Studio Practices, prise par le photographe libanais Hashem el Madani à Saida.
Le photographe commente : “Comme il était efféminé, je lui ai suggéré de prendre une pose que je choisi habituellement pour les femmes”.
copyright : A. Zaatari and AIF/ 2006

Initiée avec

  • Ashkal Alwan
  • Legal Agenda

Partners

  • Heinrich Böll Stiftung - Middle East Office
  • DICRéAM
  • Foundation for Arts Initiatives
  • French Institute of Beirut

moved to downtown Beirut in 2007, when she founded the 98weeks Research Project with her cousin, the writer and curator Mirene Arsanios. In 2009, they opened the 98weeks Project Space in Mar Mikhael, a district that was quickly absorbing an onslaught of new studios, cafés, design boutiques, bars and restaurants. Aware that they were inevitably contributing to the area’s gentrification, the Arsanioses organized a workshop in 2010, which took the history of Mar Mikhael as its subject. They dug into the many layers that make up the neighbourhood’s curious urban density, including the refugee camps – first Armenian, then Palestinian – that were repeatedly destroyed by illness, fire and war.

explore les dispositifs juridiques de production des preuves orales. Son travail a été soumis comme témoignage au Tribunal de l’asile du Royaume-Uni, où l’artiste lui-même a été appelé comme témoin expert. Il fait partie de l’équipe de Forensic Architecture au Goldsmiths College de Londres, où il est doctorant et conférencier.

has worked extensively to protect the rights of transgender and transsexual individuals in Lebanon. As a legal researcher, she gave visibility and public debate to the 2014 ruling of a transwomen judged under Article 534 of Lebanon’s penal code, condemning an “act against Nature.” She is a practicing lawyer and a member of Legal Agenda’s board.

Maya Mikdashi is a legal anthropologist and is currently a Mellon Postdoc at Rutgers University. Her upcoming book length manuscript entitled "Sex and Sectarianism: Secularism, Secularity and War in Contemporary Lebanon," is both an archival and ethnographic study of the regulation of sexual and religious difference within secular political systems. Maya works at the intersection of legal anthropology, feminism, queer theory, and theories of sovereignty, secularism and religion. She has worked on a number of documentary film projects, and continues to edit and write for Jadaliyya, an ezine that she co-founded and that is centered on critical approaches to studying the transnational Middle East.

draws upon political history in his work in an attempt to create counter narratives that recognize suppressed histories, communities, and identities. His films Nefandus Trilogy (2013) or Deseos / رغبات from 2015 address the construction, categorization and repression of homoeroticism throughout the conquest and colonial period in the Americas. His recent database documentary Gender Talents (2015) presents video portraits of trans and intersex activists who thoughtfully perform gender as a personal, social, and political opportunity, rather than as a social condemnation

is a member of social justice non-governmental organization Legal Agenda. As a legal researcher and litigator, he has worked on several cases and rulings related to social groups marginalized by Lebanese society, including: workers’ rights, syndicates, housing rights (particularly regarding Syrian refugees), Palestinian refugees’ right to access professional orders, drug users’ right to undergo treatment instead of prosecution and LGBTIQ-related rights in Lebanon. In Legal Agenda’s publication, he has published several articles on socio-legal issues including cases related to Article 534 of Lebanon’s Penal Code, used to prosecute homosexuals or what is referred to in the law as “[acts] against the order of nature.”

is the curator of a new, university-wide initiative in art and human rights, led by Yale Law School, set to commence in Fall 2015. Currently a J.D. candidate at Yale Law School, he also works as a graduate curatorial researcher at Yale University Art Gallery. He holds an M.A. in English (2010) from Harvard University and a B.A. in American Studies (2006) from Columbia University. Prior to law school, he worked as a management consultant at McKinsey & Company, where he became interested in the aesthetic possibilities of finance.

— ENQUÊTE : Le procès contra naturam
— ÉVÉNEMENT : The Manufacturing of Rights
— PLATFORME : Notes for a future online platform

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